Cookies on this site

This site uses cookies to store information on your computer. By using our site you accept the terms of our Privacy Policy

Accept and close
Emergency Number +44 7932 113573
News and knowledge

Liability conventions

Liability convention resources

In this section you will find useful resources concerning liability conventions. 

Find reference links below.


The Athens Convention

The Convention entered into force on 28 April 1987. It establishes a regime whereby a carrier is liable for loss or damage suffered by a passenger during the course of carriage resulting from the carrier's fault or neglect. The 2002 Protocol is due to come into force from 24 April 2014.

Its key features include the introduction of a compulsory insurance regime and it also raises the limits of liability.


Athens Convention relating to the Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea 1974 (Athens Convention)

More information on the Athens Convention


Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 (LLMC) 

The Convention entered into force on 1 December 1986. It establishes a liability regime for two types of claim namely personal injury and death, and property loss or damage. The latest amendment to the 1996 Protocol is due to come into force from 8 June 2015.


Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976 (LLMC)


Wreck Removal

The Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks 2007, will, when it enters into force, provide a legal regime to allow coastal states to remove, or have removed, from their coastlines, wrecks which pose a hazard to the safety of navigation or to the marine and coastal environments, or both.


Wreck Removal Convention 


Special Compensation P&I Clause

The Special Compensation P&I Clause is intended to be used in conjunction with the Lloyd's Open Form of Salvage Agreement. It provides an agreed tariff for Special Compensation to be paid to salvors under Article 14 of the 1989 Salvage Convention for preventing or minimising damage to the environment.